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Fermly Blog

  • Writer's pictureEmily Wang

Water Chemistry and Brew



Professional brewers understand that mastering water chemistry is as vital as hops or malt. Water testing is central to this mastery—an indispensable practice ensuring consistency and excellence in every batch. Relying solely on municipal water reports for brewing can be misleading as these reports often provide general data about water sources, lacking the specificity required for brewing. Water chemistry can vary significantly within a municipality, affecting brewing parameters such as pH, alkalinity, and ion concentrations. Municipal reports may not account for seasonal fluctuations or treatment adjustments, leading to inconsistencies in brewing outcomes. By conducting independent water testing, brewers gain precise insights into their water's composition, enabling tailored adjustments to achieve desired flavor profiles and brewing characteristics. Ultimately, investing in dedicated water testing ensures greater control, consistency, and quality in the brewing process, resulting in superior beers that stand out in a competitive market.


Water is not merely a neutral solvent; it is a complex blend of minerals, ions, and other constituents that profoundly impact brewing. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate are among the key ions present in water, each contributing unique characteristics to the brewing process. The interplay of these elements affects mash pH, enzymatic activity, yeast health, and ultimately, the flavor profile of the beer.


Some benefits of understanding water chemistry:

  1. Consistency: Water composition varies geographically, even within the same region. Regular water testing allows brewers to understand the specific mineral content of their water source and adjust it accordingly to maintain consistency across batches.

  2. Flavor Profile: Different beer styles demand distinct water profiles. For instance, the sulfate-to-chloride ratio greatly influences the perceived bitterness and maltiness of the beer. By testing and adjusting water chemistry, brewers can tailor their water to suit the desired flavor characteristics of a particular style.

  3. Mash pH Control: Optimal mash pH is crucial for enzymatic activity during mashing. Water testing helps brewers assess the alkalinity of their water and make adjustments using acids or salts to achieve the ideal pH range for enzymatic efficiency and flavor development.

  4. Yeast Health: Yeast is sensitive to water chemistry, particularly the presence of certain ions like calcium and magnesium. Proper water testing enables brewers to create an environment conducive to yeast health and fermentation vigor, leading to cleaner and more consistent fermentation outcomes.

  5. Troubleshooting: Inconsistencies in beer flavor or quality can often be traced back to water issues. By regularly testing water throughout the brewing process, brewers can identify and rectify any deviations from the desired water profile, thereby mitigating potential off-flavors or brewing faults.


Various methods exist for testing water composition, ranging from basic home testing kits to comprehensive laboratory analyses. Common parameters measured during water testing include pH, alkalinity, hardness, and specific ion concentrations. Most labs that do beer testing have some sort of water testing for more comprehensive assistance in the event there are quality issues. 


Based on water test results, brewers can employ various treatment methods to adjust water chemistry as needed. These may include the addition of brewing salts (e.g., gypsum, calcium chloride), acidification using food-grade acids (e.g., lactic acid, phosphoric acid), or dilution with distilled or reverse osmosis water to achieve the desired mineral profile.


Water testing is not a mere formality but a cornerstone of brewing excellence for professional brewers. By understanding and controlling water chemistry, brewers unlock the full potential of their ingredients, leading to beers of unparalleled quality, consistency, and flavor. As the brewing landscape continues to evolve, mastering water testing remains an indispensable skill for those dedicated to pushing the boundaries of craft beer innovation.

In the ever-changing world of brewing, one thing remains constant: water, meticulously tested and artfully manipulated, remains the lifeblood of exceptional beer. Cheers to the brewers who understand its significance and harness its power to create liquid masterpieces.


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